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Soziologie

Soziologie - Tag [forschung]

New Publication by Dr. Sattler et al. on Measuring Complete Well-Being and Human Flourishing

Veröffentlicht am 31. Januar 2024

Sattler, S., Wilkinson, R., Lee, M. T. (2023). Eine kurze und umfassende Messung des subjektiven Wohlergehens - Eine bevölkerungsbasierte Validierung der deutschen Version der Human Flourishing Scale bestehend aus dem Flourish Index (FI) und dem Secure Flourish Index (SFI). Zusammenstellung sozialwissenschaftlicher Items und Skalen (ZIS). LINK=https://doi.org/10.6102/zis333_exz

Abstract
We developed a German version of the Human Flourishing Scale (Flourish Index, FI and Secure Flourish Index, SFI) in a multi-stage translation and scale testing process to measure distinct domains of subjective well-being and overall flourishing. The FI consists of five sub-domains: happiness and life satisfaction, physical and mental health, meaning and purpose, character and virtue, and close social relationships. The SFI adds the sub-domain financial and material stability, which is thought necessary to sustain the other domains over time. The twelve-item SFI is a measure of flourishing that is short enough to be practical in a variety of settings, including in the workplace and in population surveys. It is comprehensive in its assessment of the most essential domains of “complete” well-being.
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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Allgemein

New Paper by Moya, Sattler and Sauer on Double Standards in the Labor Market when Violating the Social Norm of Vaccination

Veröffentlicht am 3. Januar 2024

Moya, C., Sattler, S., Taflinger, S., Sauer, C. (2024): Examining double standards in layoff preferences and expectations for gender, age, and ethnicity when violating the social norm of vaccination. Scientific Reports 14: 39. [Link]

Abstract

Whether vaccination refusal is perceived as a social norm violation that affects layoff decisions has not been tested. Also unknown is whether ascribed low-status groups are subject to double standards when they violate norms, experiencing stronger sanctions in layoff preferences and expectations, and whether work performance attenuates such sanctioning. Therefore, we study layoff preferences and expectations using a discrete choice experiment within a large representative online survey in Germany (N=12,136). Respondents chose between two employee profiles, each with information about ascribed characteristics signaling different status groups (gender, age, and ethnicity), work performance (work quality and quantity, and social skills), and whether the employees refused to vaccinate against COVID-19. We found that employees who refused vaccination were more likely to be preferred and expected to be laid off. Respondents also expected double standards regarding layoffs due to vaccination refusal, hence, harsher treatment of females and older employees. Nonetheless, their preferences did not reflect such double standards. We found little support that high work performance attenuates these sanctions and double standards, opening questions about the conditions under which social biases arise. Our results suggest detrimental consequences of vaccination refusal for individuals, the labor market, and acceptance of health policies.


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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Allgemein

New Paper by Sebastian Sattler on the How Terrorist Attacks Impact Drinking

Veröffentlicht am 3. Januar 2024

Pradel, F., Sattler, S. (2023): Health Consequences of a Death Threat: How Terrorist Attacks Impact Drinking. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. [Link]

Abstract

Terrorist attacks, war, violent acts, and their media coverage remind us of our own mortality, which may provoke stress and coping mechanisms. The terror management health model (TMHM) proposes that even subliminal thoughts about existential threats trigger worldview defense and self-esteem-related behaviors. Based on the TMHM, our field experiment (N=228) examines the impact of a terrorist attack on death-thought accessibility, the choice between alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, and if the impact on this choice is moderated by the importance of alcohol to one's self-esteem (i.e., alcohol-based self-esteem), and the consciousness of the terrorist attack. Results show that thoughts about the terrorist attack increased death-thought accessibility. The salience of the terrorist attack had no main effect on beverage choice, but alcohol-based self-esteem predicted choosing an alcoholic beverage. However, in the unconscious thought condition, participants who had low alcohol-based self-esteem and were provoked with death-related thoughts about terrorism were more likely to choose an alcoholic beverage. In the conscious thought condition, participants who had high alcohol-based self-esteem were less likely to choose alcohol. This study suggests that thoughts about terrorism and, therefore, the threat of death, can be provoked in everyday situations and affect substance use behaviors with potentially adverse health consequences.
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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Allgemein

New paper on the adherence to behavioral measures against the spread of COVID-19

Veröffentlicht am 18. Dezember 2023

Sattler, S., Taflinger, S., Ernst, A., Hasselhorn, F. (2024). Ein moderiertes Mediationsmodell zur Erklärung der Beziehung zwischen Risikogruppenzugehörigkeit, Wahrnehmung der Bedrohung, Wissen und Einhaltung der COVID-19-Verhaltensmaßnahmen. Pp. 33-69, in: Henzler, I., Hues, H., Sonnleitner, S., Wilkens, U. (eds.), Extended Views. Gesellschafts- und wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf die COVID-19-Pandemie (Köln: Böhlau) Übersetzung aus dem Englischen von: doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.842368.

Background: COVID-19 is a threat to individual and global health, thus, reducing the disease’s spread is of significant importance. However, adherence to behavioral measures against the spread of COVID-19 is not universal, even within vulnerable populations who are at higher risk of exposure to the virus or severe COVID-19 infection. Therefore, this study investigates how risk-group membership relates to adherence to COVID-19 behavioral measures, whether perceived threat of COVID-19 is a mechanism explaining this relationship, and whether knowledge about COVID-19 moderates these effects. Methods: We conducted a web-based survey (N = 4,096) representative of the adult population in Germany with regard to gender, age (18 to 74), and province. Therein, we assessed risk group membership with two indicators (risk of exposure to COVID-19 and risk of severe COVID-19 infection), perceived COVID-19 threat with the Perceived Coronavirus Threat Questionnaire, knowledge about COVID-19 with a knowledge test; and adherence to six behavioral measures to protect against the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., keeping distance, using mouth-nose protection, and following contact restrictions). We used moderated mediation models to test whether perceived threat mediates the relationship between risk-group membership and adherence and whether knowledge about COVID-19 moderates this relationship.

Results: We found that risk group members had more perceived COVID-19 threat and that knowledge about COVID-19 increased perceived threat. Moreover, risk group membership had a positive direct effect on adherence to most behavioral measures and risk group members with less knowledge about COVID-19 violated measures more frequently. Risk-group membership also had positive indirect effects on adherence via perceived COVID-19 threat. The moderated indirect effects of threat indicate that threat led to more adherence when knowledge was low, but lost relevance as knowledge increased. Conclusion: The results may help to evaluate disease-regulation measures and to combat the pandemic more effectively. For example, increasing COVID-19 knowledge in the general population could increase adherence to COVID-19 behavioral measures. However, policy makers should be mindful that this could also have negative mental health implications as knowledge increases perceived COVID-19 threat.
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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New paper on the impact of COVID 19 on sleep

Veröffentlicht am 18. Dezember 2023

ABSTRACT

 

Das wahrgenommene Risiko einer COVID-19-Exposition und eines schweren COVID-19-Verlaufs beeinträchtigt den Schlaf: Die mediierenden und moderierenden Rollen von Ängstlichkeit und Wissen in Bezug auf COVID-19

Zerbini, G., Taflinger, S., Reicherts, P., Kunz, M., Sattler, S. (2024): Das wahrgenommenen Risiko einer COVID-19-Exposition und eines schweren COVID-19-Verlaufs beeinträchtigen den Schlaf: Die mediierende und moderierende Rolle von COVID-19-bezogenen Ängsten und Wissen. Pp. 71-95, in: Henzler, I., Hues, H., Sonnleitner, S., Wilkens, U. (eds.), Extended Views. Gesellschafts- und wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf die COVID-19-Pandemie (Köln: Böhlau). Übersetzung aus dem Englischen von: doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13569

Abstract
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has been linked to increased levels of stress, depression, and anxiety in many people around the world. Therefore, identifying individuals at risk of psychosocial burden during this unprecedented crisis is essential for developing prevention measures and treatment options for mental health issues. To this aim, we investigated two risk groups: individuals at higher risk of exposure to the virus and individuals at higher risk of poor prognosis if they contract the virus. We conducted a survey (N = 4,167) with a representative sample of the German population and assessed perceived risk of COVID-19 exposure and poor prognosis if infected, COVID-19-related anxiety, problems with sleep and daytime functioning, as well as self-reported knowledge about the disease. Results showed that perceived risk group membership was linked to increased problems with sleep and daytime functioning via elevated levels of COVID-19-related anxiety. This mediated effect was further moderated by self-reported COVID-19 knowledge, but only for individuals who rated themselves at higher risk of COVID-19 exposure. Thus, knowledge buffered the negative effect of exposure risk on anxiety and ultimately on sleep in this risk group. Reaching individuals at increased risk of exposure with clear information about the disease, how to prevent infection, and treatment options could be an effective strategy to contain anxiety levels and promote good sleep, which is important for general well-being.

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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New paper on measuring complete subjective well-being with the Flourish Index (FI) and the Secure Flourish Index (SFI)

Veröffentlicht am 29. November 2023

Sattler, S., Wilkinson, R., & Lee, M. T. (2023). A Brief Measure of Complete Subjective Well-Being in Germany: A Population-Based Validation of a German Version of the Flourish Index (FI) and the Secure Flourish Index (SFI). PLOS One 18(11): e0284892. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0284892.

ABSTRACT

Measuring subjective well-being in a multidimensional, valid, reliable, and parsimonious way is important for both social science research and social policy. Here, we present an efficient measure of distinct domains of subjective well-being and overall flourishing. The Flourishing Index (FI) consists of five sub-domains: 1. happiness and life satisfaction, 2. physical and mental health, 3. meaning and purpose, 4. character and virtue, and 5. close social relationships. The Secure Flourishing Index (SFI) adds the sub-domain financial and material stability, which is thought to be necessary to sustain the other domains over time. We developed a German version of these measures in a multi-stage translation and scale testing process. The results of an exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 (N = 192) suggest a unidimensional structure of the FI and a two-dimensional structure of the SFI. Moreover, both indices (and most sub-domains) revealed acceptable to good reliability. The factor structures were confirmed in Study 2 (N = 13,268). We provide indications for measurement invariance of both indices with regard to gender and age. We furthermore examined inter-correlations with related constructs such as importance of health, self-efficacy, and social support. Study 3 (N = 317) finds evidence for high convergent validity of both the FI and the SFI with overall well-being as well as sub-scores of the PERMA-Profiler. These results suggest that the FI and the SFI are efficient measures of distinct domains of subjective well-being and overall flourishing. Our translation of the FI and SFI, along with the empirical relationships that we found among the measures that we reviewed, will help scholars in Germany (and beyond) explore an expanded range of domains of well-being, including the comparatively neglected domains of character and virtue, physical health, and financial and material stability.

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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Allgemein

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft fördert neues Graduiertenkolleg

Veröffentlicht am 15. November 2023

Zu Wanderarbeiter*innen, Expatriates oder auch Grenzpendler*innen wird bisher meist nur erforscht, was ihre Ein- oder Auswanderung für die betroffenen nationalen Arbeitsmärkte bedeutet. Ein gemeinsames Graduiertenkolleg der Universitäten Bielefeld und Duisburg-Essen geht darüber hinaus: Es untersucht grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmärkte als eigenständiges Phänomen. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) richtet das Kolleg zur Qualifizierung von Wissenschaftler*innen in frühen Karrierephasen zum April 2024 ein. Das hat die DFG heute (08.11.2023) bekannt gegeben. Gefördert wird das Kolleg über fünf Jahre mit bis zu 6,7 Millionen Euro.

Sprecherin des Kollegs wird die Arbeits- und Wirtschaftssoziologin Professorin Dr. Ursula Mense-Petermann von der Universität Bielefeld, ihre Stellvertreterin wird Professorin Karen Shire PhD von der Universität Duisburg-Essen, deren Arbeitsschwerpunkt in der vergleichenden Arbeitsmarkt- und Asienforschung liegt.

Bisher dominiert nationale Sicht auf grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmärkte
Von Seeleuten über Pflegekräfte bis hin zu Programmierer*innen oder auch Fleischzerlegern: Angehörige dieser Berufe sind vielfach im Ausland tätig, ohne sich von ihrem Heimatland zu lösen. Ihre Arbeitsplätze sind in transnationale Arbeitsmärkte eingebunden. Die Arbeitskräfte wechseln in mehr oder weniger kurzen Abständen zwischen Heimat- und Arbeitsland oder arbeiten im Homeoffice für eine Firma im Ausland.

„In der Forschung wird grenzüberschreitende Arbeit vor allem als Immigration in einen nationalen Arbeitsmarkt oder Emigration aus einem nationalen Arbeitsmarkt untersucht“, sagt die künftige Kollegsprecherin Ursula Mense-Petermann. „Das greift zu kurz. Grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmärkte sind in ein eigenes Geflecht von länderübergreifenden Organisationen, Infrastrukturen und Institutionen eingebettet.“ 

„Uns treibt die große Frage an, wie eine soziale Ordnung der Arbeitsmärkte im transnationalen Maßstab überhaupt möglich ist“, sagt die stellvertretende Kollegsprecherin Karen Shire. Welche Akteure und Institutionen diese Ordnung herstellen und sich so auf die grenzüberschreitend tätigen Arbeitskräfte auswirken, das wird künftig im Kolleg erforscht.

Elf Professor*innen kooperieren in dem Graduiertenkolleg. Zu ihnen gehört außer den Forschenden der Universitäten Bielefeld und Duisburg-Essen auch eine Forscherin der Universität Osnabrück. Ihr gemeinsames Forschungsprogramm geht der Frage nach, wie ökonomisches Handeln auf Arbeitsmärkten in soziale Netzwerke, Institutionen oder politische Gefüge eingebettet ist. „Dafür setzen wir auf eine innovative interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit zwischen soziologischer und ökonomischer Arbeitsmarkt- und Migrationsforschung – ergänzt um Globalisierungs- und Transnationalisierungstheorie“, sagt Mense-Petermann.

In der ersten Förderphase nimmt das Graduiertenkolleg 22 Doktorand*innen und eine*n Postdoktorand*in auf. In ihren Forschungsprojekten analysieren sie grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmärkte aus unterschiedlicher Sicht. So kann es etwa um die geografische Reichweite von Arbeitsmärkten gehen – diese reicht von Pendelmigration in Grenzregionen bis hin zu globalen Arbeitsmärkten, zum Beispiel im Fall von Fußballspieler*innen. Ebenfalls ein Aspekt ist das unterschiedliche Qualifikationsniveau der Arbeitskräfte – seien es ungelernte Arbeiter*innen in Landwirtschaft, Fleischverarbeitung und Logistik oder hochqualifizierte Fachkräfte wie Ingenieur*innen und Ärzt*innen. Erforscht wird zum Beispiel ebenfalls, dass grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmärkte geschlechtsspezifisch und ethnisch geprägt sind.

Künftig gehören sechs DFG-Graduiertenkollegs zur Universität Bielefeld
Das neue Graduiertenkolleg trägt den Titel „Cross-border Labour Markets: Transnational Market Makers, Infrastructures, Institutions“ (Grenzüberschreitende Arbeitsmärkte: Transnationale „market makers“, Infrastrukturen, Institutionen, GRK 2951). Graduiertenkollegs sind Einrichtungen der Universitäten zur Förderung von Forschenden in frühen Karrierephasen, die von der DFG für maximal neun Jahre gefördert werden. Durch die Bewilligung des neuen Kollegs gehören künftig sechs Graduiertenkollegs zur Universität Bielefeld.
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Gesendet von AHeinze in Allgemein

New paper by Sebastian Sattler and colleagues in the European Journal of Social Psychology about sleep-deprived or cognitively enhanced colleagues and effects on group performance

Veröffentlicht am 6. Juli 2023

Sattler, S., Faber, N. Häusser, J. (2023, online first): Working with a sleep-deprived or a cognitively enhanced team member compromises motivation to contribute to group performance How Enhanced and Impaired Colleagues Affect Performance Norms and Work Motivation. European Journal of Social Psychology. LINK

Abstract

How does knowing another team member is cognitively impaired or enhanced affect people's motivation to contribute to the team's performance? Building on the Effects of Grouping on Impairments and Enhancements (GIE) framework, we conducted two between-subjects experiments (Ntotal = 2,352) with participants from a representative, nationwide sample of the working population in Germany. We found that another group member's impairment (sleep deprivation) and enhancement (taking enhancement drugs) lowered participants’ intentions to contribute to the team's performance. These effects were mediated by lowered perceived competence (enhancement and impairment) and warmth (only enhancement) of the other group member. The reason for being impaired or enhanced (altruistic vs. egoistic reason) moderated the indirect effect of the impairment on intended effort via warmth. Our results illustrate that people's work motivation is influenced by the psychophysiological states of other group members. Hence, the enhancement of one group member can have the paradoxical effect of impairing the performance of another.

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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New Scale to Measure Sleep Problems and Impaired Daytime Functioning by Sebastian Sattler Published in ZIS – Open Access Repository for Measurment Instruments

Veröffentlicht am 24. April 2023

Sattler, S., Seddig, D., Zerbini, G. (2023). Die Messung von Schlafproblemen und der Beeinträchtigung der Tagesform mittels der Athens Insomnia Scale for Non-Clinical Application (AIS-NCA) in deutscher und englischer Sprache. Zusammenstellung sozialwissenschaftlicher Items und Skalen (ZIS). https://doi.org/10.6102/zis329. LINK

ABSTRACT: The “Athens Insomnia Scale for Non-Clinical Application (AIS-NCA)” assesses problems with sleep (4 items) and with daytime functioning (3 items). It is also possible to use all seven items for a total score. The AIS-NCA has been developed for non-clinical applications and is available in both German (AIS-NCA-G) and English (AIS-NCA-E).

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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New Paper on Stigmatization in the Context of COVID-19 by Sebastian Sattler Published in BMC Public Health

Veröffentlicht am 20. März 2023

Sattler, S., Maskileyson, D., Racine, E., Davidov, E., Escande, A. (2023). Stigmatization in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey Experiment Using Attribution Theory and the Familiarity Hypothesis. BMC Public Health 23: 521. LINK

 

Abstract

Background

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global health crisis, leading to stigmatization and discriminatory behaviors against people who have contracted or are suspected of having contracted the virus. Yet the causes of stigmatization in the context of COVID-19 remain only partially understood. Using attribution theory, we examine to what extent attributes of a fictitious person affect the formation of stigmatizing attitudes towards this person, and whether suspected COVID-19 infection (vs. flu) intensifies such attitudes. We also use the familiarity hypothesis to explore whether familiarity with COVID-19 reduces stigma and whether it moderates the effect of a COVID-19 infection on stigmatization.

Methods

We conducted a multifactorial vignette survey experiment (28-design, i.e., NVignettes = 256) in Germany (NRespondents = 4,059) in which we experimentally varied signals and signaling events (i.e., information that may trigger stigma) concerning a fictitious person in the context of COVID-19. We assessed respondents’ cognitive (e.g., blameworthiness) and affective (e.g., anger) responses as well as their discriminatory inclinations (e.g., avoidance) towards the character. Furthermore, we measured different indicators of respondents’ familiarity with COVID-19.

Results

Results revealed higher levels of stigma towards people who were diagnosed with COVID-19 versus a regular flu. In addition, stigma was higher towards those who were considered responsible for their infection due to irresponsible behavior. Knowing someone who died from a COVID infection increased stigma. While higher self-reported knowledge about COVID-19 was associated with more stigma, higher factual knowledge was associated with less.

Conclusion

Attribution theory and to a lesser extent the familiarity hypothesis can help better understand stigma in the context of COVID-19. This study provides insights about who is at risk of stigmatization and stigmatizing others in this context. It thereby allows identifying the groups that require more support in accessing healthcare services and suggests that basic, factually oriented public health interventions would be promising for reducing stigma.
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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New Study by Philipp Simon Eisnecker, Martin Kroh, Simon Kühne "The role of generalized trust in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance"

Veröffentlicht am 16. Januar 2023

Eisnecker PS, Kroh M, Kühne S (2022) The role of generalized trust in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. PLoS ONE 17(12): e0278854. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0278854 LINK

Abstract

Immunization by vaccination is one of the most important tools for fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet in many countries, immunization campaigns have been hampered by vaccine hesitancy within the population. Building on the idea that vaccination decisions are embedded in the broader societal context, we study the role of generalized trust—the belief that most people can generally be trusted—in vaccine acceptance. Immunization campaigns face an inherent collective action problem: As all individuals benefit collectively from high immunization rates regardless of individual contribution, especially those with a low risk of severe COVID infection have an incentive to decide against the (perceived) costs and risks of vaccination. We argue that generalized trust may help to overcome this problem by encouraging the belief that cooperation for the common good is achievable and that those who cooperate are unlikely to be exploited by others. We further argue that the positive effect of generalized trust on vaccination decisions is weaker among individuals who are at higher risk of severe outcomes from the disease, as the collective action problem is less pronounced in this group. To test our predictions, we used data from the SOEP-CoV survey, which queried a representative probability sample of Germany’s population between January and February 2021 on topics connected to the pandemic. Using multiple logistic regression models, and in line with expectations, we found a positive and robust link between generalized trust and the willingness to accept vaccination as soon as offered. However, overall, our examination of heterogeneous effects does not unequivocally support the idea that the role of generalized trust varies according to individual COVID risk.

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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New Study by Sebastian Sattler on Stigma in the Context of Disability published in Public Understanding of Science

Veröffentlicht am 16. Januar 2023

Sample, M., Sattler, S., Racine, E., Boehlen, W. (2023): Brain-Computer Interfaces, Disability, and the Stigma of Refusal: A Factorial Vignette Study. Public Understanding of Science. (shared 1st authorship). doi.org/10.1177/09636625221141663s. LINK

Abstract

As brain-computer interfaces are promoted as assistive devices, some researchers worry that this promise to “restore” individuals worsens stigma toward disabled people and fosters unrealistic expectations. In three web-based survey experiments with vignettes, we tested how refusing a brain-computer interface in the context of disability affects cognitive (blame), emotional (anger), and behavioral (coercion) stigmatizing attitudes (Experiment 1, N = 222) and whether the effect of a refusal is affected by the level of brain-computer interface functioning (Experiment 2, N = 620) or the risk of malfunctioning (Experiment 3, N = 620). We found that refusing a brain-computer interface increased blame and anger, while brain-computer interface functioning did change the effect of a refusal. Higher risks of device malfunctioning partially reduced stigmatizing attitudes and moderated the effect of refusal. This suggests that information about disabled people who refuse a technology can increase stigma toward them. This finding has serious implications for brain-computer interface regulation, media coverage, and the prevention of ableism.
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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New Publication by Sebastian Sattler on Cooperative Behavior in the Workplace published in Frontiers in Psychology

Veröffentlicht am 9. Januar 2023

Sattler, S., Dubljevic, V., Racine, E. (2022): Cooperative Behavior in the Workplace: Empirical Evidence from The Agent-Deed-Consequences Model of Moral Judgment. Frontiers in Psychology 13: 1064442. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1064442

Introduction: Moral judgment is of critical importance in the work context because of its implicit or explicit omnipresence in a wide range of work-place practices. The moral aspects of actual behaviors, intentions, and consequences represent areas of deep preoccupation, as exemplified in current corporate social responsibility programs, yet there remain ongoing debates on the best understanding of how such aspects of morality (behaviors, intentions, and consequences) interact. The ADC Model of moral judgment integrates the theoretical insights of three major moral theories (virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism) into a single model, which explains how moral judgment occurs in parallel evaluation processes of three different components: the character of a person (Agent-component); their actions (Deed-component); and the consequences brought about in the situation (Consequences-component). The model offers the possibility of overcoming difficulties encountered by single or dual-component theories. Methods: We designed a 2 × 2 × 2-between-subjects design vignette experiment with a Germany-wide sample of employed respondents (N = 1,349) to test this model. Results: Results showed that the Deed-component affects willingness to cooperate in the work context, which is mediated via moral judgments. These effects also varied depending on the levels of the Agent- and Consequences-component. Discussion: Thereby, the results exemplify the usefulness of the ADC Model in the work context by showing how the distinct components of morality affect moral judgment. LINK

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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

Interview der Barmer Krankenkasse mit Sebastian Sattler zum Thema Medikamentenmissbrauch

Veröffentlicht am 29. November 2022
Im Artikel über Neuroenhancement spricht Sebastian Sattler gegenüber der Internetredaktion der Barmer darüber, dass die Wirksamkeit von Medikamenten zur Leistungssteigerung oft überschätzt wird. Stress und Leistungsdruck seien aber wichtige Beweggründe zu solchen Mitteln zu greifen, wobei auch ein substanz-affines Umfeld Menschen dazu bringt, Pillen ohne medizinische Notwendigkeit einzunehmen. Link zum Artikel:
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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

New Publication by Sebastian Sattler on Public Attitudes towards Neurotechnology in PLOS ONE

Veröffentlicht am 10. November 2022

Sattler, S., Pietralla, D. (2022): Public Attitudes towards Neurotechnology: Findings from Two Experiments Concerning Brain Stimulation Devices (BSDs) and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). PLOS One 17: e0275454. LINK

ABSTRACT

This study contributes to the emerging literature on public perceptions of neurotechnological devices (NTDs) in their medical and non-medical applications, depending on their invasiveness, framing effects, and interindividual differences related to personal needs and values. We conducted two web-based between-subject experiments (2×2×2) using a representative, nation-wide sample of the adult population in Germany. Using vignettes describing how two NTDs, brain stimulation devices (BSDs; NExperiment 1 = 1,090) and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs; NExperiment 2 = 1,089), function, we randomly varied the purpose (treatment vs. enhancement) and invasiveness (noninvasive vs. invasive) of the NTD, and assessed framing effects (variable order of assessing moral acceptability first vs. willingness to use first). We found a moderate moral acceptance and willingness to use BSDs and BCIs. Respondents preferred treatment over enhancement purposes and noninvasive over invasive devices. We also found a framing effect and explored the role of personal characteristics as indicators of personal needs and values (e.g., stress, religiosity, and gender). Our results suggest that the future demand for BSDs or BCIs may depend on the purpose, invasiveness, and personal needs and values. These insights can inform technology developers about the public’s needs and concerns, and enrich legal and ethical debates.
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Gesendet von RFischer1 in Intern

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