Soziologie - Tag [sauer]
New paper on measuring complete subjective well-being with the Flourish Index (FI) and the Secure Flourish Index (SFI)
Sattler, S., Wilkinson, R., & Lee, M. T. (2023). A Brief Measure of Complete Subjective Well-Being in Germany: A Population-Based Validation of a German Version of the Flourish Index (FI) and the Secure Flourish Index (SFI). PLOS One 18(11): e0284892. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0284892.
Measuring subjective well-being in a multidimensional, valid, reliable, and parsimonious way is important for both social science research and social policy. Here, we present an efficient measure of distinct domains of subjective well-being and overall flourishing. The Flourishing Index (FI) consists of five sub-domains: 1. happiness and life satisfaction, 2. physical and mental health, 3. meaning and purpose, 4. character and virtue, and 5. close social relationships. The Secure Flourishing Index (SFI) adds the sub-domain financial and material stability, which is thought to be necessary to sustain the other domains over time. We developed a German version of these measures in a multi-stage translation and scale testing process. The results of an exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 (N = 192) suggest a unidimensional structure of the FI and a two-dimensional structure of the SFI. Moreover, both indices (and most sub-domains) revealed acceptable to good reliability. The factor structures were confirmed in Study 2 (N = 13,268). We provide indications for measurement invariance of both indices with regard to gender and age. We furthermore examined inter-correlations with related constructs such as importance of health, self-efficacy, and social support. Study 3 (N = 317) finds evidence for high convergent validity of both the FI and the SFI with overall well-being as well as sub-scores of the PERMA-Profiler. These results suggest that the FI and the SFI are efficient measures of distinct domains of subjective well-being and overall flourishing. Our translation of the FI and SFI, along with the empirical relationships that we found among the measures that we reviewed, will help scholars in Germany (and beyond) explore an expanded range of domains of well-being, including the comparatively neglected domains of character and virtue, physical health, and financial and material stability.
New paper by Sebastian Sattler and colleagues in the European Journal of Social Psychology about sleep-deprived or cognitively enhanced colleagues and effects on group performance
Sattler, S., Faber, N. Häusser, J. (2023, online first): Working with a sleep-deprived or a cognitively enhanced team member compromises motivation to contribute to group performance How Enhanced and Impaired Colleagues Affect Performance Norms and Work Motivation. European Journal of Social Psychology. ►LINK
How does knowing another team member is cognitively impaired or enhanced affect people's motivation to contribute to the team's performance? Building on the Effects of Grouping on Impairments and Enhancements (GIE) framework, we conducted two between-subjects experiments (Ntotal = 2,352) with participants from a representative, nationwide sample of the working population in Germany. We found that another group member's impairment (sleep deprivation) and enhancement (taking enhancement drugs) lowered participants’ intentions to contribute to the team's performance. These effects were mediated by lowered perceived competence (enhancement and impairment) and warmth (only enhancement) of the other group member. The reason for being impaired or enhanced (altruistic vs. egoistic reason) moderated the indirect effect of the impairment on intended effort via warmth. Our results illustrate that people's work motivation is influenced by the psychophysiological states of other group members. Hence, the enhancement of one group member can have the paradoxical effect of impairing the performance of another.[Weiterlesen]
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New Scale to Measure Sleep Problems and Impaired Daytime Functioning by Sebastian Sattler Published in ZIS – Open Access Repository for Measurment Instruments
Sattler, S., Seddig, D., Zerbini, G. (2023). Die Messung von Schlafproblemen und der Beeinträchtigung der Tagesform mittels der Athens Insomnia Scale for Non-Clinical Application (AIS-NCA) in deutscher und englischer Sprache. Zusammenstellung sozialwissenschaftlicher Items und Skalen (ZIS). https://doi.org/10.6102/zis329. ►LINK
ABSTRACT: The “Athens Insomnia Scale for Non-Clinical Application (AIS-NCA)” assesses problems with sleep (4 items) and with daytime functioning (3 items). It is also possible to use all seven items for a total score. The AIS-NCA has been developed for non-clinical applications and is available in both German (AIS-NCA-G) and English (AIS-NCA-E).[Weiterlesen]
New Paper on Stigmatization in the Context of COVID-19 by Sebastian Sattler Published in BMC Public Health
Sattler, S., Maskileyson, D., Racine, E., Davidov, E., Escande, A. (2023). Stigmatization in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey Experiment Using Attribution Theory and the Familiarity Hypothesis. BMC Public Health 23: 521. ►LINK
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global health crisis, leading to stigmatization and discriminatory behaviors against people who have contracted or are suspected of having contracted the virus. Yet the causes of stigmatization in the context of COVID-19 remain only partially understood. Using attribution theory, we examine to what extent attributes of a fictitious person affect the formation of stigmatizing attitudes towards this person, and whether suspected COVID-19 infection (vs. flu) intensifies such attitudes. We also use the familiarity hypothesis to explore whether familiarity with COVID-19 reduces stigma and whether it moderates the effect of a COVID-19 infection on stigmatization.
We conducted a multifactorial vignette survey experiment (28-design, i.e., NVignettes = 256) in Germany (NRespondents = 4,059) in which we experimentally varied signals and signaling events (i.e., information that may trigger stigma) concerning a fictitious person in the context of COVID-19. We assessed respondents’ cognitive (e.g., blameworthiness) and affective (e.g., anger) responses as well as their discriminatory inclinations (e.g., avoidance) towards the character. Furthermore, we measured different indicators of respondents’ familiarity with COVID-19.
Results revealed higher levels of stigma towards people who were diagnosed with COVID-19 versus a regular flu. In addition, stigma was higher towards those who were considered responsible for their infection due to irresponsible behavior. Knowing someone who died from a COVID infection increased stigma. While higher self-reported knowledge about COVID-19 was associated with more stigma, higher factual knowledge was associated with less.
New Study by Sebastian Sattler on Stigma in the Context of Disability published in Public Understanding of Science
Sample, M., Sattler, S., Racine, E., Boehlen, W. (2023): Brain-Computer Interfaces, Disability, and the Stigma of Refusal: A Factorial Vignette Study. Public Understanding of Science. (shared 1st authorship). doi.org/10.1177/09636625221141663s. ►LINK
New Publication by Sebastian Sattler on Cooperative Behavior in the Workplace published in Frontiers in Psychology
Sattler, S., Dubljevic, V., Racine, E. (2022): Cooperative Behavior in the Workplace: Empirical Evidence from The Agent-Deed-Consequences Model of Moral Judgment. Frontiers in Psychology 13: 1064442. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1064442
Moral judgment is of critical importance in the work context because of
its implicit or explicit omnipresence in a wide range of work-place
practices. The moral aspects of actual behaviors, intentions, and
consequences represent areas of deep preoccupation, as exemplified in
current corporate social responsibility programs, yet there remain
ongoing debates on the best understanding of how such aspects of
morality (behaviors, intentions, and consequences) interact. The ADC
Model of moral judgment integrates the theoretical insights of three
major moral theories (virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism)
into a single model, which explains how moral judgment occurs in
parallel evaluation processes of three different components: the
character of a person (Agent-component); their actions (Deed-component);
and the consequences brought about in the situation
(Consequences-component). The model offers the possibility of overcoming
difficulties encountered by single or dual-component theories. Methods:
We designed a 2 × 2 × 2-between-subjects design vignette experiment
with a Germany-wide sample of employed respondents (N = 1,349) to test
this model. Results: Results showed that the Deed-component affects
willingness to cooperate in the work context, which is mediated via
moral judgments. These effects also varied depending on the levels of
the Agent- and Consequences-component. Discussion: Thereby, the results
exemplify the usefulness of the ADC Model in the work context by showing
how the distinct components of morality affect moral judgment. LINK
Sattler, S., Pietralla, D. (2022): Public Attitudes towards Neurotechnology: Findings from Two Experiments Concerning Brain Stimulation Devices (BSDs) and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). PLOS One 17: e0275454. ►LINK
New paper by Jule Adriaans on the consequences of unfair earnings published in European Sociological Review
Referenz: Adriaans, J. (2022). Fairness of earnings in Europe: the consequences of unfair under- and overrewad for life satisfaction. European Sociological Review (online first), https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcac044
A large percentage of workers in Europe perceive their earnings to be unfairly low. Such perceptions of unfairness can have far-reaching consequences, ranging from low satisfaction to poor health. To gain insight into the conditions that can attenuate or amplify these adverse consequences, comparative research on the role of country contexts in shaping responses to perceived unfairness is needed. Furthermore, justice theory proposes that both types of perceived unfairness—underreward and overreward—cause distress, but evidence on overreward from representative survey data is scarce and laboratory studies have produced mixed results. Data from the European Social Survey (collected in 2018/2019) offer a means of addressing both of these gaps in the research. Studying the association between perceived fairness of personal earnings and life satisfaction in a cross-section of 29 European countries, I find that both underreward and overreward are associated with lower life satisfaction. This relationship is more pronounced in countries where the equity norm is strongly legitimized and weaker in countries where the trade union density is high.[Weiterlesen]
New Publication by Sebastian Sattler on Rehabilitation Professionals’ Views on Brain-Computer Interfaces
Sample, M., Boehlen, W., Sattler, S., Racine, É., Blain-Moraes, S. (2022): Brain-Computer Interfaces, Inclusive Innovation, and the Promise of Restoration: A Mixed-Methods Study with Rehabilitation Professionals. Engaging Science, Technology, and Society. ►LINK
New paper on measuring basic social justice orientations in the ESS by Jule Adriaans and Marie Fourré
Referenz: Adriaans, J., & Fourré, M. (2022). Basic social justice orientations—measuring order-related justice in the European Social Survey Round 9. Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences, 4(1), 11.
Individuals hold normative ideas about the just distribution of
goods and burdens within a social aggregate. These normative ideas
guide the evaluation of existing inequalities and refer to four
basic principles: (1)Equalitystands for an equal
distribution of rewards and burdens. While the principle of (2) need
takes individual contributions into account, (3) equity
suggests a distribution based on merit. The (4) entitlement
principle suggests that ascribed (e.g., gender) and achieved
status characteristics (e.g., occupational prestige) should
determine the distribution of goods and burdens. Past research has
argued that preferences for these principles vary with social
position as well as the social structure of a society. The Basic
Social Justice Orientations (BSJO) scale was developed to assess
agreement with the four justice principles but so far has only
been fielded in Germany. Round 9 of the European Social Survey
(ESS R9 with data collected in 2018/2019) is the first time; four
items of the BSJO scale (1 item per justice principle) were
included in a cross-national survey program, offering the unique
opportunity to study both within and between country variation. To
facilitate substantive research on preference for equality,
equity, need, and entitlement, this report provides evidence on
measurement quality in 29 European countries from ESS R9.
Analyzing response distributions, non-response, reliability, and
associations with related variables, we find supportive evidence
that the four items of the BSJO scale included in ESS R9 produce
low non-response rates, estimate agreement with the four
distributive principles reliably, and follow expected correlations
with related concepts. Researchers should, however, remember that
the BSJO scale, as implemented in the ESS R9, only provides
manifest indicators, which therefore may not cover the full
spectrum of the underlying distributive principles but focus on
specific elements of it.
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New Paper Using the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model to Explain Prescription Drug Misuse in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health by Sebastian Sattler
Sattler, S., Knesebeck, O. v. d. (2022): Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Prescription Drug Misuse – Prospective Evidence from Germany. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19, 7632. ►LINK[Weiterlesen]
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